A Look at the Life and Works of the Father of Light Art
James Turrell is a renowned American artist who has been creating thought-provoking and mesmerizing artworks for over five decades. He is known for his use of light as a medium, creating immersive installations that play with perception and challenge our understanding of space and time.
Turrell’s art has been exhibited in major museums and galleries around the world, and his most ambitious project, the Roden Crater, has been in the making for more than four decades.
In this article, we will take a closer look at the life and works of James Turrell, exploring his biography, masterpieces, important expositions, and influence on minimalist art.
The Man That Paints With the Sky
James Turrell was born in Los Angeles in 1943, into a Quaker family that valued spirituality and creativity. He studied psychology and mathematics at Pomona College, but his interest in art took him to the University of California, Irvine, where he earned an MFA in 1973.
Turrell’s interest in light and perception was inspired by his experiences flying planes, and he has often said that the sky is his studio.
He has been influenced by the works of artists such as Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman, as well as by the traditions of Quakerism and mysticism.
In the Center of the Art World
Turrell’s career as an artist began in the 1960s when he started experimenting with light and space. He became part of the California Light and Space movement, which included artists such as Robert Irwin and Doug Wheeler, who were interested in the effects of light and space on human perception.
After this, in the 1970s, Turrell began creating his famous Skyspaces, which are rooms with a hole in the ceiling that allow the viewer to observe the sky and its changing colors.
One of his most famous Skyspaces is the one he created for the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, titled “The Light Inside” (1999). This left the public mesmerized but it was just the beginning.
Must-See Artworks by James Turrell
One of James’s most famous works is “Breathing Light” (2013), which is a room filled with pulsing colored light that creates an immersive and meditative experience.
Another important piece is “Roden Crater” (1974–), a monumental work in progress that consists of a series of tunnels and chambers inside an extinct volcano in Arizona. Turrell has been working on the Roden Crater for over four decades, and it is considered his magnum opus. This work is now open to the public, but his work continues.
Another noteworthy installation is “Apani” (2002), a Skyspace located in Naoshima Island, Japan, which features a circular opening in the roof that frames the sky. You can see the beautiful wabi-sabi experience from it, and feel the huge existence of the universe.
And James Turrell has exhibited his art in major museums and galleries around the world.
In 2013, he had a retrospective at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, which included several of his Skyspaces, as well as other installations.
He has also had solo shows at the Guggenheim Museum in New York, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, among others.
His art has also been featured in group exhibitions such as the Venice Biennale, the Whitney Biennial, and Documenta.
Light as a Paint-Stroke
James Turrell is known for his use of light as a medium, creating immersive installations that play with perception and challenge our understanding of space and time.
He is often associated with the California Light and Space movement, which explored the effects of light and space on human perception and Turrell’s light installations are not simply about illumination. They are about how light interacts with our senses and creates an emotional response.
He has said that his art is about “seeing yourself seeing.”
Turrell likes to use a variety of light sources in his installations, including natural light, LED lights, fluorescent lights, and projection. He often manipulates the light to create a sense of depth, volume, and movement and his installations are usually site-specific, meaning they are designed to fit a particular space interacting with the architecture and surroundings.
Turrell’s use of light as a medium has influenced many artists and had a profound impact on the field of contemporary art.
The Magnus Opera
Turrell’s most ambitious project is the Roden Crater, a natural cinder cone located in the Painted Desert of northern Arizona. Turrell purchased the land in 1974 and has been working on the project ever since.
The Roden Crater consists of a series of tunnels and chambers that are designed to capture and manipulate the light of the sky and stars. The project is expected to be completed in the coming years, and it will be a unique space for meditation, observation, and contemplation.
Roden Crater is a testament to Turrell’s dedication and vision as an artist. It’s the joining of land art, light art, and, minimalism.
Less is More
James Turrell’s art has been associated with minimalism, a movement that emerged in the 1960s and focused on reducing art to its essential elements.
Turrell’s use of light and his interest in perception have similarities with the minimalist aesthetic. However, Turrell’s art is not strictly minimalist. As he often incorporates complex technologies and involves intricate installations, this tag doesn’t fit well.
Turrell’s influence on minimalism can be seen in the works of artists such as Dan Flavin and Robert Irwin, who also use light as a medium in their art.
Is This Art?…
Turrell’s art has received critical acclaim and has been praised for its beauty, mystery, and transcendental qualities.
Critics have noted Turrell’s ability to create immersive experiences that challenge the viewer’s perception of reality.
As well, Turrell’s art has also generated controversy, particularly in relation to his use of natural light and his claims to be a “perceptual scientist.”
Some critics have accused Turrell of being more interested in spectacle than in genuine spiritual experiences.
Despite these criticisms, Turrell’s art remains highly regarded and continues to inspire artists and viewers alike.
The immersive experience can go right into you and that’s what art is all about.
James Turrell: Master of light
His artworks have fascinated and challenged audiences for over five decades. His use of light as a medium has revolutionized contemporary art and has influenced many artists. Turrell’s most ambitious project, the Roden Crater, is a testament to his vision and dedication as an artist.
His art invites us to see the world in a new light and to question our perceptions of reality.
If you have the chance to experience one of Turrell’s installations, do not hesitate. It is a contemplative and transformative experience that will stay with you.
By Alonso Ruíz